A soil profile consists of. WithJoy.com is a popular online platform that connects couples with we...

1. QUESTION. : The soil profile consists of 5m sand underlain b

Civil Engineering questions and answers. As shown in the figure below, the soil profile at a construction site consists of a 3m thick sand layer (𝛾=16.5 kN/m3, 𝛾𝑠𝑎𝑡 = 18.5 kN/m3) underlain by a 6-m thick clay layer (𝛾𝑠𝑎𝑡= 21.5 kN/m3, w= 27%, Gs=2.7, mv = 3.1x 10-4 m2/kN, cv = 2.6 m2/yr). The clay is.Expert Answer. A soil profile consists of 12 m of sand over 8 m of clay over rock as shown in the attached figure. The water table is at 9.0 below the ground surface. For sand, G, -265,- 0.58, and water content above the water table is 20%. For clay, G-2.70, -0.54.geotechnical engineering The soil profile at a site consists of a clay layer 10 m thick, sandwich between two sand layers. The top sand layer has a density of 1.9 Mg/m² and is 5 m thick. Below this layer is a 10 m thick clay layer with a saturated density of 1.8 Mg/m' and a saturated water content 42%. The deeper sand layer has a saturated ...A soil is simply a porous medium consisting of minerals, water, gases, organic matter, and microorganisms. 1. Mineral - The largest component of soil is the mineral portion, which makes up approximately 45% to 49% of the volume. 2. Water - Water is the second basic component of soil. Water can make up approximately 2% to 50% of the soil volume. 3.Soil is one of the principal substrata of life on Earth, serving as a reservoir of water and nutrients, as a medium for the filtration and breakdown of injurious wastes, and as a participant in the cycling of …The soil profile shown consists of a layer of dry sand 4 m. thick which overlies a layer of clay having a thickness of 3 m. Ground water table is located at the interface of the sand and clay 4 m. below the ground surface. 1. Compute the effective stress at the bottom of the clay layer. 2.A soil profile consists of 3m of clean sand (γ=18kN/m³) over 10m of silt (γ=17kN/m³, kv=1 x 10-8m/s) over 12m of clay (γ=17kN/m³, kv=4 x 10-9m/s) over gravel. Piezometers installed at middepth of the sult later and at the top of the gravel layer measure, respectively, piezometric heads of 4m and 3m. Assuming one-dimensional flow in the ...Soil inorganic material consists of rock slowly broken down into smaller particles that vary in size, such as sand, silt, and loam. Soil formation results from a combination of biological, physical, and chemical processes. Soil is not homogenous because its formation results in the production of layers called a soil profile.Dig down deep into any soil, and you’ll see that it is made of layers, or horizons (O, A, E, B, C, R). Put the horizons together, and they form a soil profile. Like a biography, each profile tells a story about the life of a soil. Most soils have three major horizons (A, B, C) and some have an organic horizon (O). The horizons are:A soil profile consists of a clay layer of 10 m thick between a permeable sand layer above and an impermeable rock layer below, the water table being in the sand layer. Before the construction of a reservoir raft foundation, piezometers were installed in the clay layer. The whole process of filling the reservoir may be approximated to applying ...The general Soil Profile consists of: 1. O horizon: organic matter 2. A horizon: top soil, intense biological activity 3. B horizon: subsoil, zone of accumulation 4. C horizon: little organic matter, partially altered parent rock O and A together called topsoil . O, A, E, and B together called solum, or "true soil" . Soil Erosion:The “soil profile” consists of horizons, and there exist important interrelationships among the horizons, as they are inter-dependent and necessary for the entire profile to fulfill its function as a rooting medium, both in nature and in the designed landscape project (Craul and Craul 2006). The ideal soil has about 45 percentFinal answer. 3. At a certain site the soil profile consists of a sandy soil with a total unit weight of 108 lb/ft3 above the water table and 127lb/ft3 below the water table. The groundwater table is at a depth of 8 ft. Compute the total vertical stress and the effective vertical stress , at a point 17 ft below the ground surface.8 Eyl 2014 ... A: The A horizon is a surface horizon that largely consists of minerals (sand, silt, and clay) and with appreciable amounts of organic matter ...A soil profile refers to a vertical cross-section of various layers of soil. Typically, soil consists of three horizontal layers, namely the topsoil, subsoil, and bedrock. Each layer possesses distinct characteristics, such as texture, color, depth, and chemical composition. These layers are referred to as horizons, which are formed through ...2012). In WRB–SR, this soil is classified as a Gleyic Fluvisol. The soil formed in an un-uniform parental material (specific to soils formed in fluvial materials). As a result, the soil profile consists of two main sequences: 1) a sequence (0–60 cm) representing the actual soil (Salinic Aluviosol, with relict gleization) consisting of5.1. SOIL PROFILES IN ENGINEERING. 5.1.1. Occurrence. A soil profile designates near-surface soil layers that have been modified by processes associated with ...The general Soil Profile consists of: 1. O horizon: organic matter 2. A horizon: top soil, intense biological activity 3. B horizon: subsoil, zone of accumulation 4. C horizon: little organic matter, partially altered parent rock O and A together called topsoil . O, A, E, and B together called solum, or "true soil" . Soil Erosion:The real estate market is constantly evolving, and understanding the profile of buyers can provide valuable insights for both sellers and real estate professionals. In 2020, amidst a global pandemic and economic uncertainty, the property ma...A soil profile consists of a clay layer underlain by a sand layer, as shown in Figure P7.17. If a tube is inserted into the bottom sand layer and the water level rises to 1 m above the ground surface, determine the vertical effective stresses and porewater pressures at A, B, and C.Their generation seems to have it all, but many young people in China see a bleak feature. With their iPhones and designer streetwear, China’s youngest generations seem to have it all. But it’s these same young people who apparently identif...The real estate market is constantly evolving, and understanding the profile of buyers can provide valuable insights for both sellers and real estate professionals. In 2020, amidst a global pandemic and economic uncertainty, the property ma...See Answer. Question: Problem 6 (20 points): A soil profile consists of a clay layer and two sand layers, the clay layer is "sandwiched" between two sand layers as shown below. A surcharge of q = 100 kN/m2 is applied to the ground surface, which causes an increase of tota stress (Ac) of approximately 100 kN/m2 in the clay layer from top to bottom.Like a biography, each profile tells a story about the life of a soil. Most soils have three major horizons (A, B, C) and some have an organic horizon (O). The ...Expert Answer. Problem 6 (20 points): A soil profile consists of a clay layer and two sand layers, the clay layer is "sandwiched" between two sand layers as shown below. A …i. Unit Weight of Soils refers to the weight of one unit of a particular soil. The weight of soil varies with type and moisture content. One cubic foot of soil. can weigh from 110 pounds to 140 pounds or more, and one cubic meter (35.3. cubic feet) of soil can weigh more than 3,000 pounds. 5. Review case studies a. February 1, 2006 i.Newly formed "immature" soils may only have an O-A-C sequence while older more "mature" soils display the full profile of horizons as described above. The particular compositional, structural and chemical composition of the soil depends on the various factors that influence soil formation.The soil profile consists of a 2.38 m thick seasonally frozen layer, which is underlain by a silt layer of 4.33 m thick. The silt is also known as Fairbanks silt in literature (e.g. Zhu and Carbee, 1987) and is often unconsolidated.Soil inorganic material consists of rock slowly broken down into smaller particles that vary in size, such as sand, silt, and loam. Soil formation results from a combination of biological, physical, and chemical processes. Soil is not homogenous because its formation results in the production of layers called a soil profile. Load 1 m 1 m - --- Sand V__ Sand 1 m 1 m 3 m 3 m Clay C Clay с A soil profile consists of Sand and Clay layers as shown in Figure (left). The ground water level is 1 m below the ground surface. For Sand: the bulk unit weight of Sand above the ground water level is 18 kN/m3 and below the ground water level is 21 kN/m3. b) A soil profile consists of a surface layer of sand 3m thick ( =16kN/m 3), an intermediate clay layer 2m thick (sat=19.25kN/m 3), and a bottom layer of gravel 4m thick (sat=19kN/m 3). The water table is at the top of the clay layer. Determine the effective stress at various interfaces. There is a surcharge of 50kN/m2 on theA literature survey on the subject shows that the majority of the bearing capacity theories involve homogeneous soils under the foundations. Soil properties were assumed to remain constant for the ...The soil profile consists of 5m sand underlain by 13m layer ofclay. The ground water table is at a depth of 2 below the surface. The sand has a unit weight of 19 KN/m 3 above the ground water table and the saturated unit weight below was 20 KN/m 3. The saturated unit weight of the clay is 15 KN/m 3. At a depth of 11m det. the following:A literature survey on the subject shows that the majority of the bearing capacity theories involve homogeneous soils under the foundations. Soil properties were assumed to remain constant for the ...A laboratory model tests were conducted on three different soils brought from different sites in Iraq to guarantee the difference between these soils in amount of clay minerals. The effect of increasing of the number of stone columns with difference of amount of clay minerals of soil were studied in this research, the columns were constructed ...A soil profile consists of 3m of clean sand (γ=18kN/m³) over 10m of silt (γ=17kN/m³, kv=1 x 10-8m/s) over 12m of clay (γ=17kN/m³, kv=4 x 10-9m/s) over gravel. Piezometers installed at middepth of the sult later and at the top of the gravel layer measure, respectively, piezometric heads of 4m and 3m. Assuming one-dimensional flow in the ...In the world of online dating, signing up for a new platform can sometimes be a daunting task. With so many options available, it’s important to choose a platform that suits your needs and preferences. If you’ve decided to give Mingle2 a tr...A soil profile consists of a sand layer underlain by a clay layen as shown. If the degree of saturation of the sand above water table was 50%. Saturated and dry unit weight of sand are 21.2 kN/m^3 and 18.22 kN/m^3 respectively. The saturated unit weight of clay is 18 kN/m3. 2m GWL Sand 2 m 1.5 m Clay 2 m 1) Determine the total stress at point C ...A soil profile consists of a clay layer underlain by a sand layer, as shown in Figure P7.17. If a tube is inserted into the bottom sand layer and the water level rises to 1 m above the ground surface, determine the vertical …A typical soil has a soil profile consisting of four horizons, which are designated: O, A, B and C. The O horizon is the top layer at the earth's surface. It consists of surface litter, …After a long time, water stands at ground level in standpipe. 1 A soil profile consists of a surface layer of soft clay, 4 m thick, that overlies a layer of sand, 2 m thick. A granitic rockhead occurs at 6 m below ground level. Two standpipes are driven into the ground. Standpipe ‘A’ …A soil profile consists of 10-m thick fine sand of effective size 0.15 mm and above a very thick layer of clay. Groundwater level is at 3m below the ground surface. (a) determine the height of capillary rise, assuming that the equivalent capillary tube diameter is 10% of the effective size and the sand surface is similar to smooth glass.A soil profile consists of 20 ft of incompressible sand (Ysat - 112.4 pcf, yd - 80 pcf) overlying 10 ft of compressible clay (Cc 0.5, Cr Cs 0.05, Ysat92.4 pcf) with the water table initially at a depth of 10 ft, as shown below. If the clay has a maximum previous consolidation stress of 1700 psf, and an average initial void ratio, eo, of 1.1 ...The soil profile is an important tool in nutrient management. By examining a soil profile, we can gain valuable insight into soil fertility. As the soil weathers and/or organic matter decomposes, the profile of the soil changes. For instance, a highly weathered, infertile soil usually contains a light-colored layer in the subsurface soil from ... The soil profile consists of 5m sand underlain by 13m layer ofclay. The ground water table is at a depth of 2 below the surface. The sand has a unit weight of 19 KN/m 3 above the ground water table and the saturated unit weight below was 20 KN/m 3. The saturated unit weight of the clay is 15 KN/m 3. At a depth of 11m det. the following: The topmost, organic layer of the earth rich in minerals and microorganisms that covers the entire land and is visible to us is known as soil. All living creatures including plants, animals as well as microorganisms grow and dwell on this layer of the earth’s crust. This soil is composed of around 45% 45 % minerals, 5% 5 % organic matter, 25% ...The inorganic material of soil consists of rock, slowly broken down into smaller particles that vary in size. Soil particles that are 100 μm to 2 mm in diameter are sand. ... The soil profile has four distinct layers: 1) O horizon; 2) A horizon; 3) B horizon and 4) C horizon (figure \(\PageIndex{7-8}\)). Upper horizons (labeled as the A and O ...Civil Engineering questions and answers. Carefully study the cross-section below: A horizontally layered soil profile consists of 4 m of sand, overlying 6 m of clay, overlying another 4-m of sand that is overlying bedrock as shown in the Figure below. The Figure shows just one instance in time: a piezometer in the upper sand layer shows a water ...Soil consists of rock and sediment that have been modified by physical and chemical interaction with organic material and rainwater, over time, to produce a substrate that can support the growth of plants. Soil consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). [1] [2] …The soil profile consists of four distinct soil layers, which are also referred to as horizons. These horizons, from top to bottom, are the O horizon, A horizon, B horizon, and C horizon. Each horizon has unique characteristics and composition, which play a crucial role in determining the soil's fertility and suitability for various purposes ...Question. Transcribed Image Text: Problem 7: The soil profile at the site consists of 5.0 m of silty sand underlain by 13 m of clay. The groundwater table is at a depth of 2.8 m below the ground surface. The silty sand has a unit weight of 19 kN/m3 above the groundwater table and 20 kN/m³ below. The clay has a unit weight of 15.7 kN/m³.Zoosk is one of the most popular online dating platforms available today. With millions of users worldwide, it offers a vast pool of potential matches for people looking for love or companionship.The soil profile at a site consists of a 5 m thick sand and layer underlain by a c ϕ soil as shown in figure. The water table is found 1m below the ground level. The entire soil mass is retained by a concrete retaining wall and is in the active state. The back of the wall is smooth and vertical. The total active earth pressure expressed in kN/m2 at a point A as per Rankine's theory is .Expert Answer. Problem #2 [30 points] Problem 6.33 from Textbook A soil profile consists of 5 m of compacted sandy clay followed by 5 m of medium dense sand. Below the sand is a layer of compressible silty clay 20 m thick. The initial groundwater table is located at the bottom of the first layer (at 5 m below the ground surface).A soil profile consists of a 10-m-thick fine sand layer of effective size 0.15 mm above a very thick layer of clay. Groundwater level is at 3 m below the ground surface. (a) Determine the height of capillary rise, assuming that the equivalent capillary tube diameter is 10% of the effective size and the sand surface is similar to smooth glass.A soil profile consists of a clay layer underlain by a sand layer, as shown in Figure. If a tube is inserted into the bottom sand layer and the water level rises to 1 m above the ground surface, determine the vertical effective stresses and porewater pressures at A, B, and C. Expert Answer. Example A soil profile consists of Sm of sand overlying 4m of gravel resting on bed rock. Groundwater is 2 m below horizontal surface of the sand. Determine the distribution of total vertical stress, pore water pressure and effective stress with depth down to bed rock. Given that the bulk density of the sand above the ground ...The general Soil Profile consists of: 1. O horizon: organic matter 2. A horizon: top soil, intense biological activity 3. B horizon: subsoil, zone of accumulation 4. C horizon: little organic matter, partially altered parent rock O and A together called topsoil . O, A, E, and B together called solum, or "true soil" . Soil Erosion:Alluvial soil consists of clay, silt, sand, gravel, metals and other earthly material and is typically found near a water source. Build-up of alluvial soil in moving water can change the water’s flow.The soil profile at a site consists of a 2.0 m thick sand layerat the top, underlain by a 3.0 m thick clay layer. The watertable lies at a depth of 1.0 m below the ground level. Thebulk and saturated unit weights of the sand are 16.0 kN/m3and 19.0 kN/m3, respectively. The properties of the clay are:water content = 45.0%, specific gravity of the ...The soil profile is the layers of soil found when we go deeper into the ground. There are three main layers of soil – top soil, subsoil and parent rock. Topsoil ( A – horizon): Top …A soil profile consists of 6 m of coarse sand overlying 12 m of firm clay. Below the clay there is a 9m thick gravel layer. The sand is estimated to have an average dry density of 1.65 Mg/m3 over its full thickness. The clay has a dry density of 1.40 Mg/m3, and to be saturated below the water table an average saturated density of 1.85 Mg/m3 ...The soil profile consists of a sand layer 2m thick, the top of which is the ground surface, overlying a 4m thick layer of clay. An impermeable boundary is located at the base of the clay layer. The water.was lowered 1m below ground surface by suitable dewatering method Coincident with application of the surface load. A soil profile consists of _____. Select one: A. the way a soil "feels" B. the set of layers seen in a vertical cross section of a soil C. the sum of chemical and physical data known about a soil D. the spatial boundaries of a particular soil E. the general outline of a soil or group of soils when viewed from the side.A soil profile consists of a clay layer and two sand layers; the clay layer is “sandwiched” between two sand layers as shown below. A surcharge of q = 120 kN/m2 is applied to the ground surface, which causes an increase of total stress (Δσ) of approximately 120 kN/m2 in the clay layer from top to bottom.Civil Engineering questions and answers. Scenario A concrete roadway is to be built on top of a soil whose profile consists of three horizontal layers of soil, each 6ft thick. The depth to the groundwater table is approx. 10feet. The concrete slab and live loading of the roadway are anticipated to combine to weigh approx. 1540 psf.Background. If you look in a soil pit or on a roadside cut, you will see various layers in the soil. These layers are called soil horizons.The arrangement of these horizons in a soil is known as a soil profile.Soil scientists, who are also called pedologists, observe and describe soil profiles and soil horizons to classify and interpret the soil for various uses.i. Unit Weight of Soils refers to the weight of one unit of a particular soil. The weight of soil varies with type and moisture content. One cubic foot of soil. can weigh from 110 pounds to 140 pounds or more, and one cubic meter (35.3. cubic feet) of soil can weigh more than 3,000 pounds. 5. Review case studies a. February 1, 2006 i.A soil profile consists of a clay layer of 10 m thick between a permeable sand layer above and an impermeable rock layer below, the water table being in the sand layer. Before the construction of a reservoir raft foundation, piezometers were installed in the clay layer.The whole process of filling the reservoir may be approximated to applying ... This is the top horizon of a soil profile, a thin layer of predominantly organic material, such as leaves, twigs, and other plant parts, that are actively decaying into humus. O Horizon This horizon in a soil profile consists of unweathered, parent bedrock and fragments.A soil profile consists of 3m of clean sand (γ=18kN/m³) over 10m of silt (γ=17kN/m³, kv=1 x 10-8m/s) over 12m of clay (γ=17kN/m³, kv=4 x 10-9m/s) over gravel. Piezometers installed at middepth of the sult later and at the top of the gravel layer measure, respectively, piezometric heads of 4m and 3m. Assuming one-dimensional flow in the ...The soil profile consists of a litter layer and a thin mantle of colluvium overlying residuum derived from metasedimentary rock such as quartzite, metagraywacke and metasandstone. The acidic nature of the parent rocks contributes to the low levels of exchangeable Ca, Mg and K present in the soil and its classification in the Dystr- great group. ...1. A soil profile consists of 5 m of sand overlying 4 m of clay overlying fractured bedrock. Groundwater level (GWL) is 2 m below the horizontal surface of the sand and a piezometer in the fracture rock rises to 2m below the surface of the sand. Determine the distributions of total vertical stress, porewater pressure and effective vertical ...In the world of online dating, signing up for a new platform can sometimes be a daunting task. With so many options available, it’s important to choose a platform that suits your needs and preferences. If you’ve decided to give Mingle2 a tr...3. If the water table lowered by 4 m, determine the effective stress at the bottom of the clay layer. Problem 4: The soil profile consist of a dry sand 5 m thick which overlies a layer of clay having thickness of 7 m. Dry sand has Gs = 2.7 and e = 0.40. While clay has Gs = 2.75 and e = 0.92. Ground water table is located at the interface of the ...Layers of Soil. The soil profile consists of the series of the horizon of soil which is layered on to one another. The horizons are represented by the letters O, A, E, C, B and R, also refer to the diagram displayed above. The O-Horizon. The uppermost layer of the topsoil is composed of organic materials like dried leaves, grasses, and other ...Within the soil profile, soil scientists define zones called horizons. A horizon is a soil layer with distinct physical and chemical properties that differ from those of other layers. Five factors account for soil formation: …A soil profile consists of 5 m of compacted sandy clay followed by 6 m of medium dense sand. Below the sand is a layer of compressible silty clay 20m thick. The initial ground water table is located at the bottom of the first layer (at 5 m below the ground surface).The soil profile consists of a litter layer and a thin mantle of colluvium overlying residuum derived from metasedimentary rock such as quartzite, metagraywacke and metasandstone. The acidic nature of the parent rocks contributes to the low levels of exchangeable Ca, Mg and K present in the soil and its classification in the Dystr- great group. ...A soil profile consists of 5 ft of sand (-110 pcf) over 10 feet of clay which is underlain by gravel. The clay has the following properties: -102 pcf, e=1.7; CC=1.4; Cr/CC=0.2, OCR - 1.5 (to determine max past pressure), and cv 30 ft2/yr. A long, wide fill with #=125 pcf and a height of 8 ft is placed on the sand layer.Download Table | Main soil parameters from publication: An innovative computer code for 1D seismic response analysis including shear strength of soils | The development of a soil shear rupture ...Soil is composed of a matrix of minerals, organic matter, air, and water. Each component is important for supporting plant growth, microbial communities, and chemical decomposition. Image courtesy of FAO. 1. Mineral. The largest component of soil is the mineral portion, which makes up approximately 45% to 49% of the volume.Which portion of the soil profile consists of incompletely weathered parent material and marks the boundary between the developing soil and the underlying unweathered rock or sediment.A hematology profile is a standard hematology test that tests a blood sample for a variety of basic measurements. These measurements give a tally for each of the different types of cells in a given blood sample.Cal Jobs is a popular job search website for individuals looking for work in California. One of the most important features of Cal Jobs is the ability to create a personalized profile that can increase your chances of finding the right job.Layers of Soil. The soil profile consists of the series of the horizon of soil which is layered on to one another. The horizons are represented by the letters O, A, E, C, B and R, also refer to the diagram displayed above. The O-Horizon. The uppermost layer of the topsoil is composed of organic materials like dried leaves, grasses, and other ...These layers are called horizons, and the full vertical sequence of horizons constitutes the soil profile (see the figure).Soil horizons are defined by features that reflect soil-forming processes. For instance, the uppermost soil layer (not including surface litter) is termed the A horizon.This is a weathered layer that contains an accumulation of humus (decomposed, dark-coloured, carbon-rich ...A layered soil profile consists of three layers. For 1-D flow conditions, calculate the effective coefficient of permeability in the vertical direction and the effective coefficient of permeability in the horizontal direction. 2 m k = 1.2x10-4 cm/s 3.5 m k= 3.0 x10-4 cm/s 2 m k= 3.5 x10-4 cm/s In today’s digital age, having a captivating profile picture is more important than ever. Whether you’re using it for social media, online dating, or professional networking platforms, your profile picture is often the first impression othe...The soil profile at a site consists of a 2.0 m thick sand layerat the top, underlain by a 3.0 m thick clay layer. The watertable lies at a depth of 1.0 m below the ground level. Thebulk and saturated unit weights of the sand are 16.0 kN/m3and 19.0 kN/m3, respectively. The properties of the clay are:water content = 45.0%, specific gravity of the ...A laboratory model tests were conducted on three different soils brought from different sites in Iraq to guarantee the difference between these soils in amount of clay minerals. The effect of increasing of the number of stone columns with difference of amount of clay minerals of soil were studied in this research, the columns were constructed ...These properties vary through the depth of a soil profile, i.e. through soil horizons. ... Sand is the most stable of the mineral components of soil; it consists of rock fragments, primarily quartz particles, ranging in size from 2.0 to 0.05 mm (0.0787 to 0.0020 in) in diameter.. Step 2: When we consider all these layers or horizons togeSoil and Soil Profile Formation of Soil. The soil has taken thou The arrangement of these horizons in a soil is known as a soil profile. Soil scientists, who are also called pedologists, observe and describe soil profiles and soil horizons to classify and interpret the soil for various uses.A soil profile consists of a clay layer of 10 m thick between a permeable sand layer above and an impermeable rock layer below, the water table being in the sand layer. Before the construction of a reservoir raft foundation, piezometers were installed in the clay layer. The whole process of filling the reservoir may be approximated to applying ... See Answer. Question: Problem 6 (20 points): A soil profil The soil profile is the layers of soil found when we go deeper into the ground. There are three main layers of soil - top soil, subsoil and parent rock. ... (C - horizon): Parent rock is the layer below the subsoil which consists of pieces of rocks with cracks and crevices. Below parent rock is the layer of solid rock called bedrock. Water ... In the lowest positions, the soil cover is thin ...

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